0. Contents


  1. Syntax
  2. Semantics

This page is about the non-leniting, dative-governing preposition à. Many of its properties are already described on the page about prepositions.

1. Syntax


a. The definite variant of à is às. The former cannot be immediately followed by a form of the definite article, but the latter can.

For example:
  • à bòrd (out of a table), à bùird (out of tables).
  • às a' bhòrd (out of the table), às na bùird (out of the tables).
  • *à a' bhòrd (out of the table), *à na bùird. (out of the tables).
  • *às bòrd (out of a table), *às bùird (out of tables).

b. [But às also appears before gach and the possessive articles. Also before any word starting with a vowel? Need to be more precise here.]

c. The set of conjugated prepositions for à is as follows:

singular


masc
fem
plural
first
asam
asainn
second
asad
asaibh
third
às
aiste
asta

For example:
  • aiste is used instead of *à i or *às i (out of her).
  • asta is used instead of *à iad or *às iad (out of them).

d. There is also a set of emphatic conjugated prepositions:

singular


masc
fem
plural
first
asamsa
asainne
second
asadsa
asaibhse
third
às-san
aistese
astasan

e. Unusually for a dative-governing preposition, there are no optional possessive prepositions for à:

For example, there is no variant for the following phrases:
  • à mo chaileig (out of my girl).
  • à ur n-eaglais (out of your church).

[Again, should we use the definite variant às here?]

f. [Note on the spelling controversy - à/às versus á/ás?]

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2. Semantics


2.1. Space

fear às an sgìre sin (a man from that area)

2.2. Time


2.3. Others


a. The object of the preposition à must be in the dative case.

b. The preposition à does not lenite the immediately following word/noun.

Spatially, denotes a path which begins inside, and ends outside, the container denoted by the object (i.e. from inside/within, out of).

Usually is a verbal dependant rather than a nominal one.

  • Bha e a' tighinn a-mach às an taigh (he was coming out of the house - CM)
  • às an àite sin (thence - CM)
  • às an t-sreath (exceptional)
  • às an fhasan (out of fashion/date)
  • às an chumantas (out of the usual, abnormal)
  • às an rathad (esoteric)
  • thoir an càr às (to cheat/outwit/trick someone)
  • Thug e an càr asam. (He cheated/tricked me - CM)

Definite variant: às

a. Place of origin:
  • Có as a tha thu? (Where are you from?)
  • Tha mi à Glaschu. (I'm from Glasgow)
  • Tha Anna à Sasainn. (Ann is from England)
  • Is ann à Ùig a tha mo mhàthair. (My mother is from Uig)
  • Bruidhinn mi ri caraid à Arainn. (I spoke to a friend from Arran)

Bidh Buill ag ainmeachadh gaisgich às an sgìre no an roinn aca fhèin. (Members will be nominating heroes from their own parishes or regions)

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