0. Contents


  1. Syntax
  2. Semantics

This page is about the leniting, dative-governing preposition bho. Many of its properties are already described on the page about prepositions.

1. Syntax


a. The definite variant of bho is bhon. The former cannot be immediately followed by a singular/dual form of the definite article (i.e. leniting an); the latter must be immediately followed by a singular/dual form of the definite article (unless this is elided).

For example:
  • bho chaileig (from a girl), bho chaileagan (from girls), bho na caileaganean (from the girls).
  • *bho a' chaileig (from the girl).
  • bhon a' chaileig (from the girl).
  • *bhon na caileagan (from the girls).
  • bhon chaileig (from the girl) is a variant on bhon a' chaileig, not to be confused with bho chaileig (from a girl).

b. The conjugated prepositions for bho are as follows:

singular


masc
fem
plural
first
bhuam
bhuainn
second
bhuat
bhuaibh
third
bhuaithe
bhuaipe
bhuapa

For example:
  • bhuam (from me) should be used instead of *bho mi.
  • bhuapa (from them) should be used instead of *bho iad.

Note that the third person singular masculine may occasionally be seen written as bhuaidhe.

c. There is also a set of emphatic conjugated personal pronouns:

singular


masc
fem
plural
first
bhuamsa
bhuainne
second
bhuatsa
bhuaibhse
third
bhuaithe-san
bhuaipse
bhuapasan

d. The possessive prepositions for bho are as follows:

singular
plural
first
bhom
bhor
second
bhod
bhur
third
bho
bhoN

For example:
  • bhom thaigh (from my house) may be used instead of bho mo thaigh.
  • bhur n-eaglaisean (from your churches) may be used instead of bho ur n-eaglaisean.

e. In the various forms of the preposition bho, the bh- is sometimes dropped. In this case, the basic form is o, the definite variant is on, the conjugated prepositions are as follows:

singular


masc
fem
plural
first
uam
uainn
second
uat
uaibh
third
uaithe
uaipe
uapa

And the possessive prepositions are:

singular


masc
fem
plural
first
uamsa
uainne
second
uatsa
uaibhse
third
uaithe-san
uaipse
uapasan

Back to top

2. Semantics


a. from at
  • bho bhocsa (from a box)

b. from on
  • bho bhocsa (off a box)


CM:
  • mar gum bitheadh cudrom air èiridh bhom fheòil (as if a weight had risen from my flesh)
  • bho muigh (extraneous)
  • bho dhoras gu doras (from door to door)
  • Bha companaidh bho chompanaidh a' tuiteam. (Company after company was falling)
  • bailtean-fearainn a gheibh iad bith-beò math bhuapa (farms form which they get a good living)
  • mu mhìle gu leth a dh'astar bhuam (about a mile and a half from me)
  • Bidh iongantas ort litir fhaighinn bhuamsa. (You will be surprised to get a letter from me)
  • Bha mi eòlach gu leòr air fhaicinn bhuam. (I know him well enough by sight)
  • Bhiodh e a' faicinn Màiri bhuaithe uaireannan. (He would sometimes see Mary at a distance)
  • Chan fhairich sinn bhuainn nì nach robh againn. (We shall not miss what we did not have)
  • Co bhuaithe? (Who from?)
  • Có shùilicheadh an fhreagairt seo bhuaithe? (Who would have expected this reply from him?)
  • mar a shùilicheadh sinn bhuaithe (as we would expect from him)
  • Tha mi an dòchas gun cluinn mi bhuaibh a dh'aithgearr. (I hope I hear from you soon)
  • ge air bith a bha aige no a bha bhuaithe (whatever he had or didn't have)
  • Chan fhairicheadh e an t-airgead bhuaithe. (He wouldn't miss the money)

CM as "adverb":
  • Tha na bailtean seo air a dhol bhuaithe. (These towns have declined)
  • Bha i air a dhol bhuaithe. (She had declined)
  • Bha i air tuiteam bhuaithe. (She had declined/gone downhill)
  • thuige 's bhuaithe (off and on)
  • bhuaithe sin (from that)

CM on o:
  • Saul o Tharsus (Saul of Tarsus)
  • o àite gu àite (from place to place)
  • o àm gu àm (from time to time)
  • o thaobh gu taobh (form side to side)
  • nuair a thigeadh a' ghaoth o àirde eadar an ear-thuadh 's an ear-dheas (when the wind came from an airt between north-east and south-east)
  • o sin (hence)
  • Am bac sin o bhith a' faighinn sonas? (Will that prevent us from finding happiness?)
  • mìle on chladach (a mile off the shore)
  • on taigh (out, not at home)
  • on àm sin (henceforth)
  • Mas e mac Dhè, thigeadh e a-nuas on chrann. (If he is the son of God, let him come down from the cross)
  • Chan eil e gu diofar cò an àird om bi a' ghaoth a' sèidheadh. (It makes no difference from which direction the wind is blowing)
  • Dh'fhàg iad tìr nam beò o chionn mòran bhliadhnachan. (They departed the land of the living many years ago)
  • anns an ùine o dh'fhàg e tha an eaglais air a bhith bàn. (In the time since he left, the church has been without a minister)
  • o shean (of old)
  • na Gaidheil o shean (the Gaels of old)
  • air an robh Zeus mar ainm aig na Greugaich o shean (who was called Zeus by the Greeks of old)
  • os (i.e. o is) cuimhne leam (as long as I can remember)
  • o bu cuimhne leis (as long as he could remember)

Mar phàirt den chaismeachd, coisichidh na gaisgich còmhla ri 1,500 de dh’Albannaich a’ gabhail a-steach clann-sgoile, luchd-pàrlamaid, luchd-stiùiridh creideimh agus aoighean eile bhon t-saoghal phoblach. (As part of the march, the heroes will walk along with 1,500 Scots, including schoolchildren, parlamentarians, faith leaders and other visitors from the public world.)

Back to top