Contents:



faod


"may"

INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
faod
faodaidh (dh'fhaodas)
faodar (dh'fhaodar)
conditional
faodadh (faodainn, faodamaid)
dh'fhaodadh (dh'fhaodainn, dh'fhaodamaid)
faodteadh1
dh'fhaodteadh1

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. The conditional generic forms faodteadh and dh'fhaodteach are commonly shortened nowadays (in both speech and writing) to faodte and dh'fhaodte. Note also the dialectal alternatives faodaist and dh'fhaodaist, and the alternative spellings noted in Forbes (1848) - faodadh/dh'fhaodadh and faoiteadh/dh'fhaoiteadh.
  2. Forbes (1848) also lists a set of past-tense forms: d'fhaod, dh'fhaod, d'fhaodadh, and dh'fhaodadh. Also, he lists an alternative spelling for the verb-root itself - feud.

Read more about faod

Back to Top

feum


"must, need"

INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
feum
feumaidh (dh'fheumas)
feumar (dh'fheumar)
conditional
feumadh (feumainn, feumamaid)
dh'fheumadh (dh'fheumainn, dh'fheumamaid)
feumteadh1
dh'fheumteadh1

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. The conditional generic forms feumteadh and dh'fheumteach are commonly shortened nowadays (in both speech and writing) to feumte and dh'fheumte. Note also the dialectal alternatives feumaist and dh'fheumaist.
  2. Forbes (1848) also lists a set of past-tense forms: d'fheum, dh'fheum, d'fheumadh, and dh'fheumadh. Also, he lists an alternative form for the verb-root itself - fimir.

Read more about feum

Back to Top



theab


"almost do"

INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
(do theab)
theab
(do theabadh)
theabas
future
-
-
-
-
conditional
-
-
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-




Past dependent verb-roots


cuala


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
cuala
-
cualas1
-
future
-
-
-
-
conditional
-
-
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. The past generic form cualas has the alternative form - cualadh.

deach


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
deachaidh1
-
deachas
-
future
-
-
-
-
conditional
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. The past dependent specific form deachaidh is nowadays usually shortened to deach.



Past independent verb-roots


chaidh


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
chaidh
-
chaidheas
future
-
-
-
-
conditional
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

chunna(i)c


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
chunnaic1
-
chunnacas1
future
-
-
-
-
conditional
-
-
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. There are a series of dialectal alternative past tense forms listed in Forbes (1848) - chunna (specific independent), chunnacadh (generic independent).

chuala


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
chuala
-
chualas1
future
-
-
-
-
conditional
-
-
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. The past generic form chualas has the alternative form - chualadh.

fhua(i)r


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
(do fhuair1)
fhuair
(do fhuaras1)
fhuaras2
future
-
-
-
-
conditional
-
-
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. The past dependent compounds do fhuair and do fhuaras are usually written and pronounced as d' fhuair and d' fhuaras.
  2. The past independent generic form fhuaras has the alternative form - fhuaradh (and hence do fhuaradh for the dependent compound).

ràin-


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
(do ràinig)
ràinig
(do ràineas)
ràineas1
future
-
-
-
conditional
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. Forbes (1848) a couple of alternative past independent generic forms - ràinigeadh, ràineadh. And hence the following dependent forms - do ràinigeadh, do ràineadh.

rinn


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
(do rinn1)
rinn
(do rinneadh1)
rinneadh
future
-
-
-
-
conditional
-
-
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. The past dependent compounds do rinn and do rinneadh are often found written as d' rinn and d' rinneadh.

rug


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
rug
-
rugadh
future
-
-
-
conditional
-
-
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

thàin-


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
(do thàinig1)
thàinig
(do thàineas1)
thàineas
future
-
-
-
-
conditional
-
-
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

d. Notes:
  1. The past dependent compounds do thàinig and do thàineas are usually shortened (in both speech and writing) to d' thàinig and d' thàineas In fact, they are generally written nowadays as one word - tàinig and tàineas, even though they are still pronounced with a D sound at the start. Some authors recommend spelling them dàinig and dàineas, for this reason.

thubairt


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
thubhairt
-
thubhairteadh
future
-
-
-
-
conditional
-
-
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

thug



specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
(do thug1)
thug
(do thugadh1)
thugadh
future
-
-
-
-
conditional
-
-
-
-


first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. The past dependent compounds do thug and do thugadh are usually shortened to d' thug and d' thugadh. In fact, they are generally written nowadays as one word - tug and tugadh, even though they are still pronounced with a D sound at the start. Some authors recommend spelling them dug and dugadh, for this reason.




Future independent verb-roots


nith


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
-
1
-
nithear2
conditional
-
-
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. There is no special relative future independent specific form, e.g. ma e (if he does).
  2. Forbes (1848) lists nìtear as an alternative future independent generic.

thèid


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
(d' thèid2)
thèid1
(d' thèidear2)
thèidear
conditional
-
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. There is no special relative future independent specific form, e.g. ma thèid e (if he goes), rather than *ma thèideas e.
  2. The future dependent forms are commonly written as tèid and tèidear nowadays, even though the initial consonant is actually a D sound. The following spellings are sometimes found too: dèid, dèidear.




Non-past independent verb-roots


bheir


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
-
bheir2
-
bheirear
conditional
-
bheireadh (bheirinn, bheireamaid)
-
bheirteadh1

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

d. Notes:
  1. The conditional generic forms bheirteadh is nowadays usually shortened (in both speech and writing) to bheirte.
  2. There is no special relative future independent specific form, e.g. ma bheir e (if he gives), rather than ma bheireas e (which means "if he bears").

chith


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
-
chì2
-
chithear
conditional
-
chitheadh (chithinn, chitheamaid)
-
chìteadh1

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. The conditional generic form chìteadh are nowadays usually shortened (in both speech and writing) to chìte.
  2. There is no special relative future independent specific form, e.g. ma chì e (if he sees).

gheibh


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
-
gheibh2
-
gheibhear
conditional
-
gheibheadh (gheibhinn, gheibheamaid)
-
gheibhteadh1

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

Notes:
  1. The conditional generic form gheibhteadh is nowadays usually shortened (in both speech and writing) to gheibhte.
  2. There is no special relative future independent specific form, e.g. ma gheibh e (if he gets), rather than *ma gheibheas e.

their


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
-
their
-
theirear
conditional
-
theireadh (theirinn, theireamaid)
-
theirteadh

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
-
-
-
-
-
generic
-

thig


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
(d' thig3)
thig2
(d' thigear3)
thigear
conditional
(d' thigeadh, d' thiginn, d' thigeamaid)3
thigeadh (thiginn, thigeamaid)
(d' thigteadh1,3)
thigteadh1

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
thigeam
thigeamaid
thig
thigibh
thigeadh
generic
thigtear

Notes:
  1. The conditional generic forms d' thigteadh and thigteadh are nowadays usually shortened (in both speech and writing) to d' thigte (alt. tigte, digte) and thigte, respectively.
  2. There is no special relative future independent specific form, e.g. ma thig e (if he comes), rather than *ma thigeas e.
  3. The future and conditional dependent forms are commonly written as tig, tigtear, tigeadh, tiginn, tigeamaid and tigteadh (alt. tigte) nowadays, even though the initial consonant is actually a D sound. The following spellings are sometimes found too: dig, digtear, digeadh, diginn, digeamaid and digteadh (alt. digte). On the other hand, the verbal nouns are pronounced with an initial T sound.



abair


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
abair
-
abrar
-
conditional
abradh (abrainn, abramaid)
-
abairteadh
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
abram
abramaid
abair
abraibh
abradh
generic
abairtear

beir


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
beir
beiridh (bheireas)
beirear
conditional
bheireadh (bheirinn, bheireamaid)
beireadh (beirinn, beireamaid)
beirteadh
bheirteadh

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
beiream
beireamaid
beir
beiribh
beireadh
generic
beirtear

can


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
can
canaidh (chanas)
canar
conditional
canadh (canainn, canamaid)
chanadh (chanainn, chanamaid)
canteadh
chanteadh

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
canam
canamaid
can
canaibh
canadh
generic
cantar

cluinn


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
cluinn
cluinnidh (chluinneas)
cluinnear
conditional
cluinneadh (cluinninn, cluinneamaid)
chluinneadh (chluinninn, chluinneamaid)
cluinnteadh1
chluinnteadh1

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
cluinneam
cluinneamaid
cluinn
cluinnibh
cluinneadh
generic
cluinntear

Notes:
  1. The conditional generic forms cluinnteadh and chluinnteadh are nowadays usually shortened (in both speech and writing) to cluinnte and chluinnteadh, respectively. Note also the dialectal variants: cluinnist and chluinnist.

dèan


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
dèan
-
dèanar
-
conditional
dèanadh (dèanainn, dèanamaid)
dhèanadh (dhèanainn, dhèanamaid)
dèanteadh1
dhèanteadh1

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
dèanam
dèanamaid
dèan
dèanaibh
dèanadh
generic
dèantar2

Notes:
  1. The conditional generic forms dèanteadh and dhèanteadh are nowadays usually shortened (in both speech and writing) to dèante and dhèanteadh, respectively.
  2. Forbes (1848) lists dèanar as an alternative imperative generic form.

fa(i)c


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
faca2
-
facas2
-
future
faic
-
faicear
-
conditional
faiceadh (faicinn, faiceamaid)
-
faicteadh1
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
faiceam
faiceamaid
faic
faicibh
faiceadh
generic
faictear3

Notes:
  1. The conditional generic form faicteadh is nowadays usually shortened (in both speech and writing) to faicte. Note also the dialectal alternative dependent form - faiciste.
  2. There are a series of dialectal alternative past tense forms listed in Forbes (1848) - fac (specific dependent), facadh (generic dependent).
  3. Forbes (1848) lists an alternative imperative generic - faicthear.

faigh


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
faigh
-
faighear
-
conditional
faigheadh (faighinn, faigheamaid)
-
faighteadh1
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
faigheam
faigheamaid
faigh
faighibh
faigheadh
generic
faightear

Notes:
  1. The conditional generic form faighteadh is nowadays usually shortened (in both speech and writing) to faighte.

rach


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
-
-
-
-
conditional
rachadh (rachainn, rachamaid)2
rachteadh1

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
racham
rachamaid
rach
rachaibh
rachadh
generic
rachtar

Notes:
  1. The conditional generic form rachteadh is nowadays usually shortened (in both speech and writing) to rachte. Forbes (1848) lists rachtadh as an alternative spelling.
  2. Note the following dialectal alternatives to rachadh and rachainn - d(h)eigheadh/d(h)eighinn, d(h)eidheadh/d(h)eidhinn, reigheadh/reighinn, reaghadh/reaghainn.

ruig


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
ruig
ruigidh (ruigeas)
ruigear
conditional
ruigeadh (ruiginn, ruigeamaid)
ruigteadh1

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
ruigeam
ruigeamaid
ruig
ruigibh
ruigeadh
generic
ruigtear

Notes:
  1. The conditional generic form ruigteadh is nowadays usually shortened (in both speech and writing) to ruigte.

thoir


INDICATIVE
specific
generic

dependent
independent
dependent
independent
past
-
-
-
-
future
toir2
-
toirear2
-
conditional
toireadh (toirinn, toireamaid)2
-
toirteadh1,2
-

IMPERATIVE
first
second
third

singular
plural
singular
plural

specific
thoiream
thoireamaid
thoir
thoiribh
thoireadh
generic
thoirtear3

c. Verbal noun: toirt4.

d. Notes:
  1. The conditional generic form thoirteadh is nowadays usually shortened (in both speech and writing) to thoirte.
  2. The initial consonant in toir, toirear, etc. is actually a D sound. Hence, the following spellings are sometimes found - doir, doirear, etc, and even d' thoir, d' thoirear, etc. [What about the verbal noun?]
  3. Forbes (1848) lists thoirear as an alternative imperative generic form.


tha, bha etc.