Non-past tense


Am faod mi/sinn ... ? Requesting permission (Do I/we have [your] permission to ... ? Do I/we have the right to ... ?):
  • Am faod mi tighinn a-steach (mas e ur toil e)? 'Can I come in (please)?'
  • Am faod sinn falbh a-nis? 'Can we leave now?'
  • Am faod mi falbh? 'Can I go?'
  • Am faod mi a dhol dhachaidh a-nis? 'Can I go home now?'
  • Am faod mi a dhol chun an dannsa? 'Can I go to the dance?'
  • Am faod mi a dhol chun nam bùthan? 'Can I go to the shops?'
  • Am faod sinn a dhol dhan taigh-dhealbh oidhche Haoine? 'Can we go to the cinema on Friday night?'
  • Am faod sinn a dhol a-steach? 'Can we go outside?'
  • Am faod mise a dhol ann cuideachd? 'Can I go too?'
  • Am faod mi a dhol dhan taigh-bheag? 'May I go to the toilet?'
  • Am faod sin suidhe airson mionaid? 'Can we sit (down) for a minute?'
  • Am faod sinn suidhe an seo? 'Can we sit here?'
  • Am faod mi suidhe sìos? 'May I sit down?'
  • Am faod mi smocadh an seo? 'May I smoke here?'
  • Am faod mi an doras (a) fhosgladh? 'May I open the door?'
  • Am faod mi an doras a dhùnadh? 'May I close the door?'
  • Am faod mi an uinneag (a) fhosgladh? 'May I open the window?'
  • Am faod sinn an uinneag a dhùnadh? 'May we close the window?'
  • Am faod mi seo a chleachdadh? 'Can I use this?'
  • Am faod mi am fòn agad a chleachdadh? 'May I use your telephone?'
  • Am faod mi uisge fhaighinn, mas e ur toil e? 'Can I have some water, please?'
  • Am faod mi an salann fhaighinn? 'Can I have the salt?'
  • Am faod mi an càr agad fhaighinn, mas e ur toil e? 'Can I have your car?'
  • Am faod mi na h-iuchraichean fhaighinn? 'Can I have the keys?'
  • Am faod sinn tòiseachadh a-nis? 'Can we start now?'
  • Am faod mi sin a dhèanamh? 'Can I do that?'
  • Am faod mi am pàipear seo a leughadh? 'May I read this paper?'
  • Am faod mi ball-coise a chluich? 'Can I play football?'
  • Am faod mi golf a chluich? 'Can I play golf?'
  • Am faod mi bruidhinn ri Dàibhidh? 'May I speak to David?'
  • Am faod mi bruidhinn ri do bhràthair? 'May I speak to your brother?'
  • Am faod mi bruidhinn ri Seòras MacAoidh? 'May I speak to George MacKay?'
  • Am faod mi bruidhinn ris an dotair? 'May I speak to the doctor?'
  • Am faod mi bruidhinn ris a' mhanaidsear? 'May I speak to the manager?'
  • Am faod mi bruidhinn ris a' chòcaire? 'May I speak to the cook?'
  • Am faod mi bruidhinn ris? 'May I speak to him?'
  • Am faod mi bruidhinn rithe? 'May I speak to her?'

Faodaidh tu/sibh ... Granting permission (You have [my] permission to ... You have the right to ...):
  • Am faod mi [...] ? 'May I ... ?'
    • Faodaidh. 'Yes, you may.'
    • Faodaidh gu dearbh. 'Indeed, you may.'
  • Faodaidh tu tighinn a-steach. 'You can come in.'
  • Faodaidh tu tighinn còmhla rium. 'You can come with me.'
  • Faodaidh sibh falbh. 'You can go.'
  • Faodaidh tu sin a dhèanamh a-nochd. 'You can do that tonight.'

Chan fhaod thu/sibh ... Refusing permission (You don't have [my] permission to ... You don't have the right to ...):
  • Am faod mi [...] ? 'May I ... ?'
    • Chan fhaod. 'No, you may not.'
    • Chan fhaod, tha mi duilich. 'No, you can't, I'm sorry.'
    • Chan fhaod an-dràsda. 'Not just now.'

Faodaidh mi/sinn/e ... Describing permission (I/we have permission to ...; I/we have the opportunity to ...):
  • Faodaidh mi falbh a-nochd. 'I may go tonight.' [i.e. It is possible that ... cf. Is dòcha gun dh'fhalbhas mi a-nochd; How about: 'I can go tonight' i.e. I have the opportunity or permission to ...]
  • Faodaidh mi dol còmhla riut. 'I may go with you.'
  • Faodaidh mi falbh a-màireach. 'I may go tomorrow'.
  • Faodaidh sinn a dhol ann Disathairne. 'We can go on Saturday.'
  • Faodaidh e a' chlach a bhualadh. 'He may hit the stone.'

... gum faod ..., ... nach fhaod ...
  • Tha mi a' smaoineachadh gum faod thu an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'I think that you can open the window.'
  • Tha mi a' smaoineachadh nach fhaod thu an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'I don't think that you can open the window.'

... a dh'fhaodas ..., ... nach fhaod ...
  • am fear a dh'fhaodas an uineag a fhosgladh 'the man who can open the window'
  • am fear nach fhaodas an uineag a fhosgladh 'the man who can't open the window'
  • ged a dh'fhaodas tu an uineag a fhosgladh 'although you may open the window'
  • ged nach fhaod thu an uineag a fhosgladh 'although you may not open the window'
  • ma dh'fhaodas mi an uinneag a fhosgladh 'if I may open the window'

Faodar ... (One may ...)
  • Faodar an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'One may open the window.', 'The window may be opened.'
  • Chan fhaodar an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'One may not open the window.', 'The window may not be opened.'
  • Tha mi a' smaoineachadh gum faodar an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'I think that the window may be opened.'
  • Tha mi a' smaoineachadh nach fhaodar an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'I don't think that the window can be opened.'
  • an uinneag a dh'fhaodar fosgladh 'The window which may be opened' ???
  • an uinneag nach fhaodar fosgladh 'The window which may not be opened' ???
  • ged a dh'fhaodar an uinneag a fhosgladh 'although the window may be opened'
  • ged nach fhaodar an uinneag a fhosgladh 'although the window may not be opened'
  • ma dh'fhaodar an uinneag a fhosgladh 'if the window may be opened'

Other:
  • 'S e duine math a th' ann, ged a dh'fhaodas cuid de dhaoine a bhith a' sealltainn sìos air. 'He is a good man, though some people may look down on him' [It is possible that ...]
  • Chan fhaod e bhith gu bheil thu a' creidsinn a leithid sin de dh'amaideachd. 'It is not possible that you believe such foolishness.'
  • Faodaidh gur e atharrachadh na h-aimsire a tha gan cur air ghluasad. 'Perhaps it is a change in the weather that causes them to migrate.'
  • Tha e ag ràdh gum faod thu tighinn. 'He says you can come.' [i.e. he gives you permission]
  • Thig mi còmhla riut ma dh'fhaodas mi. 'I will come with you, if I may' [i.e. if you give me permission]
  • Faodar a' cheist a fhreagairt ann am Beurla. 'One may answer the question in English' [i.e. Faodaidh tu ... ; it is permitted to ...]
  • Faodar a bualadh. 'Someone may hit her.'
  • Ma dh'fhaodas mi falbh .... 'If I can go ...'

Past tense


Describing past permission:
  • Dh'fhaodadh e an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'He had permission to open the window.' 'He might have opened the window.'
  • Dh'fhaodainn an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'I had permission to open the window.' 'I might have opened the window.'
  • Dh'fhaodamaid an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'We had permission to open the window.' 'We might have opened the window.'
  • Chan fhaodadh e an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'He didn't have permission to open the window.' 'He might not have opened the window.'
  • Chan fhaodainn an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'I didn't have permission to open the window.' 'I might not have opened the window.'
  • Chan fhaodamaid an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'We didn't have permission to open the window.' 'We might not have opened the window.'
  • Tha mi a' smaoineachadh gum faodadh tu an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'I think that you might have opened the window.'
  • Tha mi a' smaoineachadh nach fhaodadh tu an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'I don't think that you might have opened the window.'
  • am fear a dh'fhaodadh an uinneag a fhosgladh 'the man who might have opened the window'
  • am fear nach fhaodadh an uinneag a fhosgladh 'the man who might not have opened the window'
  • ged a dh'fhaodainn an uinneag a fhosgladh 'though I might have opened the window'
  • ged nach fhaodamaid an uinneag a fhosgladh 'though we might not have opened the window'
  • ma dh'fhaodadh iad an uinneag a fhosgladh 'if they might have opened the window'

Impersonal forms:
  • Dh'fhaodte(adh) an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'The window might have been opened.' 'Someone had permission to open the window.'
  • Chan fhaodte(adh) an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'The window might not have been opened.' 'No-one had permission to open the window.'
  • Tha mi a' smaoineachadh gum faodte(adh) an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'I think that the window might have been opened.'
  • Tha mi a' smaoineachadh nach fhaodte(adh) an uinneag a fhosgladh. 'I don't think that the window might have been opened.'
  • an uinneag a dh'fhaodte(adh) fosgladh 'The window which might have been opened' ???
  • an uinneag nach fhaodte(adh) fosgladh 'The window which might not have been opened' ???
  • ged a dh'fhaodte(adh) an uinneag a fhosgladh 'although the window might have been opened'
  • ged nach fhaodte(adh) an uinneag a fhosgladh 'although the window might not have been opened'
  • ma dh'fhaodte(adh) an uinneag a fhosgladh 'if the window might have been opened'

Question forms:


Reported speech:
  • Dh'fhaighnich am fear ma ??? 'The man asked if he might open the window' [Dh'fhaighnich e: 'Am faod mi ... ?']
  • Thuirt i gum faodamaid an uinneag (a) fhosgladh. 'She said that we might open the window.' [Thuirt i: 'Faodaidh sibh ...']
  • Thuirt i nach fhaodamaid an uinneag (a) fhosgladh. 'She said that we might not open the window.' [Thuirt i: 'Chan fhaod sibh ...']
  • Thuirt i gum fao(i)dte(adh) an uinneag (a) fhosgladh. 'She said that one might open the window.' [Thuirt i: 'Faodar ...']
  • Thuirt i nach fhao(i)dte(adh) an uinneag (a) fhosgladh. 'She said that one might not open the window.' [Thuirt i: 'Nach fhaodar ...']

  • Ach dh'fhaodach e bhith na bu mhiosa. 'But it might have been worse.' [i.e. It was possible that it would be worse]
  • Thuirt an dorsair gun robh a mhaighstir 'na chadal agus nach fhaodte a dhùsgadh. 'The doorman said that his master was sleeping and that one might not wake him up' [i.e. it was not permitted to ...]
  • Chan fhaodte càil fhàgail anns a' ghàrradh air eagal gun rachadh a ghoid. 'One couldn't leave anything in the garden, in case someone would steal it.'
  • Ghabh sinn fasgadh mar a b' fheàrr a dh'fhaodadh sinn. 'We took shelter as best we might.'
  • Dh'fhalbh e gun smid a ràdh, ged a dh'fhaodte aithneachadh gun robh e tinn. 'He left without saying a word, though one might have perceived that he was ill.'
  • ma dh'fhaoidte, ma dh'fhaoite 'perhaps'; often distorted to mathaid or is mathaid gu ...; Bha i 's mathaid deich air fhichead. 'She was perhaps thirty'; Is mathaid gun robh e 'na chadal. 'Perhaps he was asleep'; 'S mathaid gu bheil e air dol dhachaigh. 'Perhaps he has gone home'; Thàinig e a-steach air gu h-obann gur mathaid gun robh ... 'He realised suddenly that perhaps ... was ...'.
  • Dh'fhaod mi falbh. 'I might have gone.'
  • Na'n d'fhaod mi falbh ... 'If I might have gone ...'